Innovation in the New Zealand Dairy Industry - Table by Robin Fenwick

Situation 1945

1960s

1970s

1980s

1990s

Industry Parameters

1.7 million cows.

40,000 suppliers

409 factories.

3% of export earnings not butter and cheese.

2.3 million cows (1969).

25 ,000 suppliers (1969).

229 factories (1969).

22.5 % of exports not butter and cheese (1969).

. . 2.7 million cows(1994)

15,000 suppliers (1994)

27 factories (1994)

60% of export earnings not butter and cheese (1994)

Butter/milkfat industry

Volume: 104,000T butter,Cream separated on-farm ; Wooden churns (<2.5 ton capacity) Factory capacity 25T/day AMF from butter, 1x10,000T factory Pasteurization by Danish Kettle Volume: 267,000T butter- Factory separation; Stainless steel churns; ”Coli-free” butter; Factory capacity 40T/day; AMF for recombining industry in Asia; Vacreation (steam distillation). Continuous buttermakers AMF from cream directly AMF blends with vegetable oils Ammix process (1982); Low fat butters ;Lactic butter Aspac refinery for vegetable oils. Volume: 264,000 Tonnes butter; Spreadable (1990); Bakery fats (fractionation);
Factory capacity 250 T/day

Cheesemaking

Batch process, 900 gallon vats Manual technology Waxed, 80kg rounds Capacity 2T cheese/day Cheddar-master” continuous process, in 4 factories by 1969; Blue vein, emanthaler at Rennet Co; 1 tonne large cheese hoop. Brine-salted cheeses (Gouda, Parmessan) (1974) Vertical cheese taknks 1972 Wincanton block-former Chilled container transport Leprino Mozzarella 1976 Alto-matic” semi- automated process Fully enclosed Sophisticated starters; Microbial rennin. >50% non-cheddar types ;Growth of consumer packs; Capacity: >200 T cheese/day;Growth of processed cheese (slice-on-slice); Growth of mozzarella;Flavour enhancement technology.

Milkpowder

Drum drying 1 or 2 effect evaporators Very little export Multi-nozzle box driers; Powder removal by screw conveyers; Multi-effect evaporators- Capacity: 2.5T/hr (1969); Some tall-form driers with wet-collectors; Skim milk powder for Asian recombining into sweetened condensed and evaporated milks; Tanker collection (’50s) Instant whole milk (lecithinated) 2-stage drying with fines return (1974) Powders for UHT (Middle East market) Demineralized powders for infant formula Milk biscuits for hunger- relief Concentrate heating for quality improvement of instant wmp for coffee; Mechanical Vapour recompression to reduce costs; 1 tonne bins for internal transport; Growth of retail canned products; Can-making plant. Bulk-unit exports. Low-lactose powders; Hydrolysed lactose powders ”Anlene”; Dry blending (eg. follow- on products); Capacity: 12.5T/hr.; ”Nutrition for every stage of life” consumer strategy; Non-dairy ingredients; Powders for ingredient applications; 24 hour dryer running times;

Milk Protein

Casein for carpentry glues began in 1900s but exports fell to near zero by 1945; Process based upon cheese-making technology; Whey for pig industry. Lactose Company (Unilever, Edendale) exported 1000T/year lactose. Continuous process for lactic and rennet caseins following batch precipitation; ”Edible” quality; Multi-stage washing. Caseinate and co- precipitate processes developed; (1000T exported 1969); Lactose exports 8000T/year; Dried whey powder; Lactalbumin manufacture began; Ultra-filtration investigation (1969). Continuous enclosed process; food ingredient use; TMP process patented; Offshore caseinate re- processing in USA; Carbon-treatment.; 35% whey protein concentrate (wpc) for infant formula.; 75% wpc for ham pumping; Continuous spray-dried lactalbumin process; Demineralized permeate for protein standard- ization of milkpowder; Pig industry in decline. Diversification of caseinate product range; Centralized ownership of whey processing plants; 3 Ethanol plants; 80% wpc Diversified wpc product range; Demineralized whey powder for China. Solubilization of lactalbumin by enzymes. Lactose-hydrolysed wpc; Growth of TMP; Calcium ”milk salts”. Ultra-filtration of skim milk for milk protein concentrates;. High protein mpc;
Lactose exports 20,000 T/year; lon-exchange, whey protein isolate, >90% protein level.;
Protein-hydrolysed powders for ethical uses. Growth of Alamin.

Services

Contact surfaces: Tinned brass, Wood; Open vats; Cleaning by hand. Manual process control; Milk can delivery; Disposal to waterways. Contact surfaces: stainless steel; Milk tankers (74% of farms supplying wholemilk); Land disposal of effluent. Semi-enclosed systems; Cleaning-in-place;. Semi-automatic process control; Land treatment of effluent; Whey. treatment/fertilizing; Waste minimisation. Fully enclosed systems;.Automation. Tanker-trailer units. Modern land treatment Biological treatment of effluent. Robot technologies;
.Milk trains.

Japanese development (Morinaga)

Powdered retail infant formula (1920s) Processed cheese, yoghurt(1930s) UHT treatment for extended shelf life; Dairy coffee whitener; Own MD Dryers built. MK Cheese (JV with Kraft); Bifidus yoghurt; L&L lowfat dairy spread; Lactulose ro-biotic. Offshore licenses for technology; Pharmaceutical plant; New research centres; Special-care formulas. Functional Food recognition for low phosphorus powdered milk,& bifidus yoghurt.

On-farm

24 scientists at Ruakura - 10 publications;. Predominantly Jersey; Shorthorn declining; Set stocking management; Serpentine superphosphate in use; Diverse pasture species (Timothy, fog, etc);. Natural mating; Walk-through cow sheds; ”Stripping” of udders; Hand making of silage & hay, Silage pits;. Shift to Friesians becoming evident;. Rotational grazing systems; Alkathene pipeline for water; Pluoronics for bloat; Improved pasture species; Artificial breeding.; Herringbone cowsheds; Penicillin for mastitis;. Contagious abortion vaccine; Facial eczma prevention; Mobile hay baler; Calcium borogluconate for milk fever.

Maize silage/greenfeed; Use of nitrogen; Mg for staggers; Dairy Beef industry grew; Rotary cow sheds; lodophors & detergents for milking machine; Uptake of electric fencing.

115 scientists at Ruakura, 390 publications; Grazing-off of replacements;. Mechanisation of silage and hay; Large bales for hay; Reproductive techniques (CIDRs etc); Payment for protein in milk with a charge for volume 1987. Mechanisation; 4 wheel motor bikes; Indoor calf rearing; Embryo technology; Plastic cover for large bales; Personal computers in home..